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Food allergy. Drug allergy. Respiratory allergy.

Types of Allergies

Types of Allergies

Food Allergy

Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food proteins.

Food Allergies Symptoms

  • tingling mouth
  • swelling of the lips, tongue, face, throat
  • difficulty swallowing
  • vomiting, intestinal colic
  • hives
  • anaphylaxis

90% of people have food intolerance of different kinds, and only in about 10% of all cases, they deal with true food allergies, i.e. health condition when eating even a small amount of certain food provokes a severe allergic reaction.

There is plenty of food allergens, however, 90% of all allergic responses are caused by milk, soy, eggs, peanuts, fish, shellfish, and hazelnuts.

The number of people suffering from food allergies keeps increasing globally. It’s estimated that children under the age of 6 years account for 3-5% of allergy patients, and school-age kids – for 1-2%.

For some of them, food allergies will continue into adulthood. It is important to emphasize that people with food allergy are at risk of developing a life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylactic reaction) after consuming a very small amount of the problem food.

One of the key risk factors for anaphylaxis is asthma. Food allergies most commonly develop at an early age but sometimes the first onset of symptoms triggered by eating certain foodstuffs may occur in adults or even elderly people.

A food allergy is diagnosed through skin testing and diet diary, including various methods of laboratory diagnostics. Drug therapy is rarely used against food allergies and only to relieve the symptoms. Complete avoidance of allergens and special diet adherence is the only way of fighting off a food allergy.

Drug Allergy

Drug allergy is hypersensitivity to modern medication’s ingredients. Adverse reactions to drugs, including allergic ones, are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world.

Drug Allergies Symptoms

  • hives
  • itchy skin
  • facial swelling
  • wheezing
  • anaphylaxis

The allergic response to the intake of various groups of drugs has been increasingly frequent in children. It often develops along with a food allergy, resulting in cross-reactivity between various food and drugs.

When an allergic reaction occurs, it is treated symptomatically and further avoidance of the drug allergen is advised.

Respiratory Allergy

Respiratory allergy is a hypersensitivity response to airborne allergens in the environment.

Respiratory Allergies Symptoms

  • itchy nose, eyes or roof of the mouth
  • sneezing
  • rhinorrhea or runny nose (mucoid nasal discharge)
  • stuffy nose
  • conjunctivitis (“red”, watery eyes)

This allergy type is called a reaction to dust, pet hair and dander, mold spores, various pollen from trees, plants, and grasses. The symptoms only occur in respiratory organs. Their gravity depends on the organs’ sensitivity, amount of the allergen, and duration of exposure.

Diagnosis is made based on a thorough examination of the clinical aspect of disease and family medical history, and the determination of the allergy-inducing factors in the domestic environment. During aggravation, clinical diagnostics of causative allergens is performed for further limitation of their effect.

The most widespread allergens include:

  • allergens present in the air (pollen, pet dander, mold, dust mite)
  • certain foods
  • insect venom (bees, wasps)
  • drugs (penicillin, etc.)
  • latex and other substances causing skin reactions

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